Web pages

Web pages & non-periodical documents on the Internet
  • Include the author, title of the document, and if available, always include the date the material was updated or posted online. If the page may be changed or moved, include the date of retrieval. Include the URL of the document cited.
  • If there is no author, place the title in the author position.
  • If there is no date, replace the date with (n.d.) to signify that there is no date for the material.
  • Add a description of the source in square brackets after the title, if this is necessary to clarify the type of source e.g. [Bibliography] [PowerPoint slides] [Multimedia presentation]
    Library and Archives Canada. (2008). Celebrating women's achievements: Women artists in Canada. Retrieved from http://www.collectionscanada.gc.ca/women/002026-500-e.html
  • If the source material is likely to change over time (e.g. wikis), include the retrieval date.
Geography of Canada. (2009, September 29). In Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved September 30, 2009, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geography_of_Canada

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Television or radio program
    • MacIntyre, L. (Reporter). (2002, January 23). Scandal of the Century [Television series episode]. In H. Cashore (Producer), The fifth estate. Toronto, Canada: Canadian Broadcasting Corporation.
Film, videorecording or DVD
    • Kubrick, S. (Director). (1980). The Shining [Motion picture]. United States: Warner Brothers.
YouTube videos (For more information see the APA Style Blog)
With author's name and screen name
With only screen name
    • Bellofolletti. (2009, April 8). Ghost caught on surveillance camera [Video file]. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v =Dq1ms2JhYBI&feature=related
Online Lecture Notes and Presentation Slides (such as Moodle)
Cress, C. M. (2009). Curricular strategies for student success and engaged learning [PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved from http://www.vtcampuscompact.org/2009/TCL_post/presenter_powerpoints/Christine%20Cress%20-%20Curricular%20Strategies.ppt


Book with one author
      • Bernstein, T. M. (1965). The careful writer: A modern guide to English usage (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Atheneum.
Electronic book
      • Replace place and publisher information with the DOI.
        Anderson, C.A., Gentile, D.A., & Buckley, K.E. (2007). Violent video game effects on children and adolescents: Theory, research and public policy. doi:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195309836.001.0001
Work with two authors
      • Beck, C. A. J., & Sales, B. D. (2001). Family mediation: Facts, myths, and future prospects. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Two or more works by the same author
      • Arrange by the year of publication, the earliest first.
        Postman, N. (1979). Teaching as a conserving activity. New York, NY: Delacorte Press.
        Postman, N. (1985). Amusing ourselves to death: Public discourse in the age of show business. New York, NY: Viking.
      • If works by the same author are published in the same year, arrange alphabetically by title and add a letter after the year as indicated below.
        McLuhan, M. (1970a). Culture is our business. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
        McLuhan, M. (1970b). From cliché to archetype. New York, NY: Viking Press.