In-text citation with APA-style

APA IN-TEXT CITATION WITH APA STYLE


Using in-text citation with APA style
APA style uses the author/date system for in-text citation. Within the text of your paper, include an in-text citation when you refer to, summarize, paraphrase, or quote from another source. For every in-text citation in your paper, there must be a corresponding entry in your reference list. See the following examples for correct ways of using in-text citation.
Using the Author/Date System
Author's Name
Example of Usage
Author's name part of narrative
Gass and Varonis (1984) found that the most important element in comprehending non-native speech is familiarity with the topic.
Author's name in parentheses
One study found that the most important element in comprehending non-native speech is familiarity with the topic (Gass & Varonis, 1984).
Multiple works (separate each work with semi-colons)
Research shows that listening to a particular accent improves comprehension of accented speech in general (Gass & Varonis, 1984; Krech Thomas, 2004).
Direct quote, author's name part of narrative
Gass and Varonis (1984) found that “the listener’s familiarity with the topic of discourse greatly facilitates the interpretation of the entire message” (p. 85).
Direct quote, author's name in parentheses
One study found that “the listener's familiarity with the topic of discourse greatly facilitates the interpretation of the entire message” (Gass & Varonis, 1984, p. 85).
Note: For direct quotations of more than 40 words, display the quote as an indented block of text without quotation marks and include the authors’ names, date, and page number in parentheses at the end of the quote. For example:
This suggests that familiarity with nonnative speech in general, although it is clearly not as important a variable as topic familiarity, may indeed have some effect. That is, prior experience with nonnative speech, such as that gained by listening to the reading, facilitates comprehension. (Gass & Varonis, 1984, p. 77)

Works by multiple authors
APA style has specific rules for citing works by multiple authors. Use the following chart to determine how to correctly cite works by multiple authors in text.
Citing Works by Multiple Authors in Text
Type of citation
First citation
Subsequent citations
First citation,

parenthetical format
Subsequent citations, parenthetical format
One author
Field (2005)
Field (2005)
(Field, 2005)
(Field, 2005)
Two authors
Gass and Varonis (1984)
Gass and Varonis (1984)
(Gass & Varonis, 1984)
(Gass & Varonis, 1984)
Three authors
Munro, Derwing, and Sato (2006)
Munro et al. (2006)
(Munro, Derwing, & Sato, 2006)
(Munro et al., 2006)
Four authors
Tremblay, Richer, Lachance, and Cote (2010)
Tremblay et al. (2010)
(Tremblay, Richer, Lachance, & Cote, 2010)
(Tremblay et al., 2010)
Five authors
Hay, Elias, Fielding-Barnsley, Homel, and Freiberg (2007)
Hay et al. (2007)
(Hay, Elias, Fielding-Barnsley, Homel, & Freiberg, 2007)
(Hay et al., 2007)
Six or more authors
Norris-Shortle et al. (2006)
Norris-Shortle et al. (2006)
(Norris-Shortle et al., 2006)
(Norris-Shortle et al., 2006)

Example paragraph with in-text citation

A few researchers in the linguistics field have developed training programs designed to improve native speakers' ability to understand accented speech (Derwing, Rossiter, & Munro, 2002; Krech Thomas, 2004). Their training techniques are based on the research described above indicating that comprehension improves with exposure to non-native speech. Derwing et al. (2002) conducted their training with students preparing to be social workers, but note that other professionals who work with non-native speakers could benefit from a similar program.